Wilson's disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in tissues; this manifests as neurological or psychiatric symptoms and liver disease. It is treated with medication that reduces copper absorption or removes the excess copper from the body, but occasionally a liver transplant is required.
The condition is due to mutations in the Wilson disease protein (ATP7B) gene. A single abnormal copy of the gene is present in 1 in 100 people, who do not develop any symptoms (they are carriers). If a child inherits the gene from both parents, the child may develop Wilson's disease. Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 6 and 20 years, but cases in much older people have been described. Wilson's disease occurs in 1 to 4 per 100,000 people.It is named after Samuel Alexander Kinkier Wilson (18781937), the British neurologist who first described the condition in 1912.